BOTSWANA (BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE)
AND THE TWO WORLD WARS
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Note 1 : Ten thousand Bechuana (Batswana) men from Bechuanaland served in the British Army together with Basuto (Basotho) and Swazi from Basutoland and Swaziland during World War II; lesser numbers served in the Union (of South Africa) Defence Force in World Wars I & II. For general discussion of this literature see Jackson in Journal of Military History (2002) below. For a succinct account of Bechuana soldiers in World War II see Ramsay &c. (2007) below.
Note 2 : The bibliography that follows includes some key comparative works on neighbouring countries and accounts of campaigns in which Bechuana troops took part (even though they do not feature in these publications).
CLOTHIER, Norman. Black Valour: The South African Native Labour Contingent, 1916-1918, and the Sinking of the ‘Mendi’ Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1987.
CROWDER, Michael. ‘The First World War and its consequences’ chap.12, pp 132-142 in A. Adu BOAHEN, ed. Africa Under Colonial Domination 1880-1935 Paris: UNESCO & London: James Currey (UNESCO General History of Africa vol.7, Abridged edn.), 1990
EDGAR, Robert. ‘Lesotho and the First World War: recruiting, resistance and the South African Native Labour Contingent’ Mohlomi: Journal of Southern African Historical Studies, vols.3-5 combined, 1979
GARSON, Noel G. ‘South Africa and World War I’ Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History , vol.8, no.1, 1989
GRUNDLINGH, Albert. Fighting Their Own War: South African Blacks and the First World War Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1987
KATZENELLENBOGEN, Simon E. ‘Southern Africa and the war of 1914-1918’ in M.R.D. FOOT, ed. War and Society London: 1973
JACKSON, Ashley. 'Bechuanaland, the Caprivi Strip, and the First World War' unpublished paper, 1998, cited in Jackson (2002) below
JINGOES, S.J., (ed. C. & J. Perry). A Chief is Chief by the People: An Autobiography of Stimela Jason Jingoes Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1975 [re WW1 service].
KILSON, Robin. 'Calling up the empire: the British military use of non-white labor in France, 1916-1920' Harvard University: DPhil. dissertation, 1990
LACEY, Marian. ‘Platskiet-politiek: the role of the Union Defence Force 1910-1924’, pp.28-39 in Jacklyn COCK & Laurie NATHAN, eds. War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa Cape Town: David Philip, 1989
MITCHINSON, K.W. Pioneer Battalions of the Great War: Organized and Intelligent Labour London; Leo Cooper, 1997
PARSONS, Quentin Neil. 'Twentieth century tribalism, 1913-1923; chap. 10 in Q.N. Parsons, 'Khama III, the Bamangwato and the British, with special reference to 1895-1923' University of Edinburgh: PhD, 1973
STEPHENS, Darnley Stuart. ‘Our million black army” English Review , vol.23, July 1916, pp.353-60
SUMMERSKILL, Michael. China on the Western Front: Britain's Chinese World Force in the First World War London: published by the author, 1982
WILLAN, Brian. ‘The South African Native Labour Contingent, 1916-1918’ Journal of African History , vol.18, 1978, pp.61-86 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
CHANOCK, Martin. Unconsummated Union: Britain, Rhodesia and South Africa 1900-45 Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977 [published in U.S.A. minus first two words of title]
COWLING, Noelle. ‘Historical survey of non-European army services outside of the Union of South Africa’ Militaria (Pretoria), vol.24, no.2, 1994, pp.15-29
CROWDER, Michael. ‘The impact of the two world wars on Africa’ History Today , vol.34, no.1, Jan.1984 [Crowder was professor of history at University of Botswana 1981-85]
HYAM, Ronald. The Failure of South African Expansion 1908-1948 London: Macmillan, 1972 [published before many 40 or 50 year-old British archives available for 1940-48]
KILLINGRAY, David. 'Labour exploitation for military campaigns in British colonial Africa, 1870-1945' Journal of Contemporary History , vol.24, no.3, 1989, pp.483-501 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
KILLINGRAY, David. ‘War and society in Africa since 1800’ South African Historical Journal , no. 25, Nov. 1991, pp.131-53.
OGOT, B.A., ed. War and Society in Africa: Ten Studies London: Frank Cass, 1972
PARSONS, Timothy. The African Rank-and-File: Social Implications of Colonial Military Service in the King's African Rifles, 1902-1964 Oxford: James Currey, 1999
RANGER, Terence Osborn. 'The invention of tradition in colonial Africa', chap., pp.211-62 in Eric Hobsbawm & Terence Ranger, eds. The Invention of Tradition Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983
CALDER, Angus. The People’s War: Britain 1939-45 London: Pimlico, 1992
CHURCHILL, Winston Spencer. The Second World War London: Cassell, 6 vols. 1948-1954 [More than any other individual, Churchill was responsible for pursuing the military campaign through Italy]
FUREDI, Frank. 'The demobilized African soldier and the blow to white prestige' chap., pp. in David Killingray & David Omissi, eds. Guardians of Empire: The Armed Forces and the Colonial Powers Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999
HEADRICK, Rita. ‘African soldiers in World War II’ Armed Forces and Society , vol.4, no.3, May 1978, pp.501-20
JACKSON, Ashley. The British Empire and the Second World War London: Hambledon/ Continuum, 2006. 624pp. ISBN-13: 978-1852854171
KILLINGRAY, David & Richard Rathbone, eds. Africa and the Second World War Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1986
KILLINGRAY, David. 'Labour mobilization in British colonial Africa for the war effort, 1939-46' chap., pp. in David Killingray & Richard Rathbone, eds. Africa and the Second World War Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1986
KILLINGRAY, David. ‘The rod of empire: the debate over corporal punishment in the British African colonial forces, 1888-1946’ Journal of African History , vol.35, no.2 (1994), pp.201-16 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
LOUIS, William Roger. Imperialism at Bay: the United States and the Decolonization of the British Empire Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977
MARTIN, H.J. & N. ORPEN. Military and Industrial Organisation in Connection with the Conduct of War 1939-1945 Cape Town: Purnell (South Africa at War, vol.2), 1978
SMYTH, Rosaleen. ‘Britain’s African colonies and British propaganda during the Second World War’ Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History , vol.14, 1985, pp.65-82
WEINBERG, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994
African Affairs (Journal of the Royal African Society), vol.41, no.164, July 1942, pp.149-160: ‘War services of the High Commission Territories’
BARBER, D. Africans in Khaki London: Edinburgh House Press (International Missionary Council), 1948
BARBER, D. Short History of the 64 Group Headquarters, Royal Pioneer Corps London: Marshall Bros, n.d. [copy in Public Records Office, London]
HARLECH (Lord) & Eric Walker. ‘The British South African territories’ African Affairs, vol.44, no.175, 1945 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
HYAM, Ronald. The Failure of South African Expansion 1908-1948 London: Macmillan, 1972 [published before British archives 1940-48 available]
JACKSON, Ashley. 'African soldiers and imperial authorities: tensions and unrest during the service of High Commission Territories soldiers in the British Army, 1941-46' Journal of Southern African Studies , vol.25, no.4, 1999, pp.645-65 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
JACKSON, Ashley. 'Supplying war: the High Commission Territories' military-logistical contribution in the Second World War' Journal of Military History , vol. 66, no. 3, July 2002, pp.719-760 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
'Protectorate natives in the Middle-East' South Africa (London), vol., no., 29 July 1944, pp.
SEYMOUR, John. On My Own Terms London: Faber, 1980 [autobiog., relevance unclear – cited by Schmitt 2006 p.259]
SHUCKBURGH, John. 'War Narrative of the High Commission Territories and Official Colonial History of the War, 1939-1945' unpublished, dated 2149 [otherwise cited as part of his Civil History of the War of 1939-1945: ] copies in Botswana National Archives, & Public Records Office, London—DO 35/4180/Y4142/2] 56pp
BARBER, D. Basuto at Arms: A Short Pictorial Record of the Basuto in War-Time London: Headley Bros, n.d.
CLOTHIER, Norman. 'The Erinpura: Basotho tragedy' unpublished paper in possession of Ashley Jackson (2002, p.745), n.d.
DOHERTY, R. Wall of Steel: History of the 9th (Londonderry) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery Limavady, N. Ireland: North West Books, 1988 [cited by Jackson 1999 p.264; Basuto only acc. Jackson 2202 p.746]
EDGAR, Robert. Prophets with Honour: A Documentary History of Lekhotla la Bafo Johhannesburg: Ravan Press, 1987
GRAY, Brian. Basuto Soldiers in Hitler’s War Maseru: Basutoland Government Publications, 1953.
NTABENI, Mary 'War and society in colonial Lesotho 1939-45' Queen's University, Ontario: PhD dissertation, 1996
TRACEY, High. 'Basutoland's gift to Britain' African Affairs , vol., no., April 1941, pp.132-39 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
BENSON, Mary. Tshekedi Khama 1905-59 London: Faber, 1960
BENT, R.A.R. (Alan). Ten Thousand Men of Africa: The Story of the Bechuanaland Pioneers and Gunners, 1941-1946 London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, for Bechuanaland Government, 1952. 128pp.
BHILA, Hoyini H. K. ‘The impact of the Second World War on peasant agriculture in Botswana, 1939-1956’ Botswana Notes and Records , vol.16, 1964, pp.63-71
CROWDER, Michael. ‘Tshekedi Khama and opposition to the British administration of the Bechuanaland Protectorate 1926-1936’ Journal of African History , vol.26, 1985, pp.193-214 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
CROWDER, Michael. ‘Tshekedi Khama, Smuts and South West Africa’ Journal of Modern African Studies , vol.25, no.1, 1987, pp.25-42
CROWDER, Michael. Copies and translations by Gabasiane of letters to Tshekedi Khama from Bangwato soldiers 1941-45, in Michael Crowder Papers, Institute of Commonwealth Studies library, London [originals in Tshekedi Khama Papers, now either deposited in Khama III Memorial Museum, Serowe, or in University of Botswana library Botswana Collection]
JACKSON, Ashley. ‘Tshekedi Khama, Leetile Raditladi and the Second World War’ Lekgapho Serowe: Khama III Memorial Museum, 1995
JACKSON, Ashley. ‘Tswana war poetry: part one’ Botswana Notes and Records , vol.27, 1995, pp.97-110
JACKSON, Ashley. ‘Bad chiefs and sub-tribes: aspects of recruitment for the British Army in Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1941-42’ Botswana Notes and Records , vol.28, 1996, pp.87-96
JACKSON, Ashley, ‘Motivation and mobilization for war: recruitment for the British Army in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1941-42’ African Affairs , vol.96, no.384, 1997 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
JACKSON, Ashley. 'VE (Victory in Europe) Day 1995: perspectives and commemorations from Botswana' Botswana Notes and Records , vol.30, 1998, pp.87-100
JACKSON, Ashley. An African Country at War: Botswana 1939-1945 Oxford: Clarendon Press (Oxford Historical Monographs), 1999. 281 pp. [pp.274-275 on newspaper citations re. 1995 VE Day fiftieth anniversary] [reviewed by Timothy H. Parsons in Journal of African History , vol.41, no.2, 2000, pp.333-334; Kenneth Manungo in South African Historical Journal , no.43, Nov. 2000, pp.287-88; by Neil Parsons in Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History , vol.29, no.1, 2001, pp.171-173]
JACKSON, Ashley. 'Tshekedi Khama, Bechuanaland, and the Central African federation' South African Historical Journal , vol.40, 1999, pp.202-22
Kiyaga-MULINDWA, David. ‘Defence of empire or a political tactic?: self-sacrifice in the Bechuanaland Protectorate during the Second World War’ University of Botswana Department of History seminar paper, Gaborone, 1979.
Kiyaga-MULINDWA, David. ‘Bechuanaland Protectorate and the Second World War’ Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History , vol.12, no.3 (May 1984), pp.33-53
Kiyaga-MULINDWA, David. 'The Protectorate and World War II', chap., pp. in Fred Morton & Jeff Ramsay, eds. The Birth of Botswana: A History of the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1910-66 Gaborone: Longman Botswana, 1987
MALETE, L. ‘The career of Kgosi Bathoen II 1928-69’ Gaborone: University of Botswana Department of History, BA research essay, 1990
MARUMO, M. ‘The socio-economic and political impact of the Second World War on the Bangwato’ Gaborone: University of Botswana Department of History, BA research essay, 1989.
MOGWE, Gaele – see under SOBOTT, Gaele
MOKOPAKGOSI, Brian. ‘The impact of the Second World War: the case of the Kweneng in the then Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1939-50’ pp.160-181 in David Killingray & Richard Rathbone, eds. Africa and the Second World War Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1986
MOLOTSI, K. ‘Impact of colonialism on the institution of chieftainship: the Kweneng case 1885-1960’ Gaborone: University of Botswana Department of History, BA research essay, 1981
MUDZINGANYAMA, N. ‘Articulation of modes of production and the development of a labour reserve in southern Africa 1885-1944: the case of Bechuanaland’ Botswana Notes and Records , vol.15, 1983.
OAKES, J. ‘To serve Mmamosadinyana—how 10,000 Bechuana fought against Hitler for Mrs Little Woman’ Army Quarterly and Defence Journal , vol.125, no.3 (1995)
RADITLADI, Mmualefhe. ‘Recognising Otlatla Habe Shashane (1921-)’ Botswana Gazette, Weds . 3 March 2004, p.13 [prisoner-of-war at Tobruk]
RAMSAY, Jeff, Modirwa KEKWALETSWE, & Mesh MOETI. From Boys to Men: The Story of the BDF at 30, 1977-2007 Gaborone: Front Page Publications for Botswana Defence Force, 2007. 50pp [pp.15-23: 'On the footsteps of 10 000 great men']
ROONEY,D. Sir Charles Arden Clarke London: Collins, 1982 [Resident Commissioner of Bechuanaland Protectorate]
SANDILANDS, Alexander. About the Bechuana London: London Missionary Society, 1943 [for British Army Middle East Command, pamphlet guide for British officers]
SCHMITT, Deborah Ann. The Bechuanaland Pioneers and Gunners Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2006. 278pp [revised version of PhD under previous surname Shackleton]
SHACKLETON, Debbie. ‘Recipe for failure: integration of Batswana soldiers into British units during the Second World War’ (U.S.) African Studies Association annual meeting, Orlando, Florida, 1995
SHACKLETON, Deborah Ann. 'Imperial military policy and the Bechuanaland Pioneers and Gunners during the Second World War' Indiana University: PhD dissertation, 1996
SHACKLETON, Debbie --see SCHMITT above
SOBOTT, Gaele. ‘Experiences of Batswana women during the Second World War’ Pula, Botswana Journal of African Studies , vol.13, nos.1 & 2 (1999), pp.93-107.
STEENKAMP, Phillip (Jnr.) ‘Cinderella of the empire?: development policy in Bechuanaland in the 1930s’ Journal of Southern African Studies , vol.17, no.2, 1991
TAPELA, Henderson. ‘The Tati District of Botswana 1866-1969’ University of Sussex: PhD, 1976
TAYLOR, Mike. ‘The Second World War and the Batswapong’ Zebra’s Voice (Gaborone: National Museum & Art Gallery), no.21, 1994, p.10
TLOU, Thomas, Neil PARSONS & Willie HENDERSON. Seretse Khama 1921-1980 Gaborone: Botswana Society & Braamfontein, Johannesburg: Macmillan Boleswa, 1995
WYLIE, Diana. A Little God: The Twilight of Patriarchy in a South African Kingdom Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1990 [biog. study of Tshekedi Khama]
ZAFFIRO, James. From Police Network to Station of the Nation: A Political History of Broadcasting in Botswana, 1927-1991 Gaborone: Botswana Society, 1991
KUPER, Hilda (Beemer). Sobhuza II, Ngwenyama and King of Swaziland: The Story of an Hereditary Ruler and His Country London: Duckworth, 1978
RIGG, B. 'The Swazi Pioneers September 1941-March 1945' copies in Public Record Office, London: WO 253/1 & DO 35/1183
SIMELANE, Hamilton Sipho. ‘Women and the Second World War in Swaziland 1941-46’ Uniswa Research Journal (Kwaluseni), vol.3, 1990
SIMELANE, Hamilton Sipho. 'Landlessness and imperial response in Swaziland 1938-59' Journal of Southern African Studies , vol.17, no.4, 1991, pp.717-41 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
SIMELANE, Hamilton Sipho. ‘Labour mobilization for the war effort in Swaziland, 1940-42’ International Journal of African Historical Studies , vol.26, no.23 (1993), pp.541-77 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
SIMELANE, Hamilton Sipho. ‘Veterans, politics and poverty: the case of Swazi veterans in the Second World War’ South African Historical Journal , no.38 (May 1998), pp.144-70
van OUDTSHOORN, F.P. 'History of the part play by the Swazi in the war 1941-45' paper in Swaziland National Archives, Lobamba, Filer 606E
WALTON, W. ‘Colonel H. Johnson, OBE, MC, TD, leader of the Swazi Pioneers 1941-45: a memoir’ 1993 [unpublished paper cited in Jackson 1999 p.274]
Crwys-WILLIAMS, Jennifer. [South Africa:] A Country at War 1939-1945 Rivonia, Johannesburg: Ashanti Publishing, 1992
GLEESON, Ian. The Unknown Force: Black, Indian and Coloured Soldiers through Two World Wars Rivonia, Johannesburg: Ashanti Publishing/ William Waterman Publications, 1994.
GRUNDLINGH, Albert. ‘The king’s Afrikaners?: enlistment and ethnic identity in the Union of South Africa Defence force during the Second World War, 1939-45’ Journal of African History , vol.40, no.3, 1999, pp.351-65. [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
GRUNDLINGH, Louis. ‘The Participation of South African Blacks in the Second World War’ University of South Africa, Pretoria: D.Litt et Phil dissertation, 1986.
GRUNDLINGH, Louis. ‘The recruitment of South African blacks for participation in the Second World War’ pp.181-203 in David KILLINGRAY & Richard RATHBONE, eds. Africa and the Second World War London: Macmillan, 1986.
GRUNDLINGH, Louis. ‘Soldiers and politics: a study of the political consciousness of black South African soldiers during and after the Second World War’ Historia (Pretoria), vol.36, no.2, Nov.1991, pp.55-66
GRUNDLINGH, Louis. ‘Prejudices, promises and poverty: the experiences of discharged and demobilized black South African soldiers after the Second World War’ South African Historical Journal , no.26 (May 1992), pp.116-35.
GRUNDLINGH, Louis. ‘Non-Europeans should be kept away from the temptations of the towns: controlling black South Africans during the Second World War’ International Journal of African Historical Studies , vol.25, no.3, 1992, pp.439-60 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
GRUNDY, Kenneth. Soldiers without Politics: Blacks in the South African Armed Forces Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
HIRSON, Baruch. ‘Not pro-war, and not anti-war, just indifferent: South African blacks in the Second World War’ Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory (Glasgow), nos.20-21, 1987, pp.39-56
NASSON, Bill. 'National mobilization and military effectiveness in the Union of South Africa, 1939-45' unpublished paper at International Conference on the Commonwealth Contribution to the War Effort, 1939-45, n.p., n.d. [cited in Jackson 2002 p.736]
PHIMISTER, Ian 'Union of South Africa, pp. in I.C.B. Dear & M.R.D. Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Second World War Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
ROTH, Mirjana. ‘If you give us rights, we will fight: black involvement in the Second World War’ South African Historical Journal , no.15, Nov. 1983, pp.85-104
TYLDEN, Godfrey. The Armed Forces of South Africa Johannesburg Museum: Africana Museum, 1954.
CROWDER, Michael. ‘Africa under British and Belgian domination, 1935-1945’ chap.4, pp.76-101 in Ali A. MAZRUI, ed. Africa since 1935 Paris: UNESCO & London: James Currey (UNESCO General History of Africa vol.8, Unabridged edn.), 1999
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DATTA, Kissum. 'Farm labour, agrarian capital, and the state in colonial Zambia: the African Labour Corps, 1942-52' Journal of Southern African Studies , vol.14, 1988, pp.371-92 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
JACKSON, Ashley. War and Empire in Mauritius and the Indian Ocean Basingstoke: Palgrave/ Macmillan (Studies in Military & Strategic History), 2001.
JOHNSON, David. 'Settler farmers and coerced African labour in Southern Rhodesia, 1936-46' Journal of African History , vol.33, 1992, pp.111-28 [Internet copy available via JSTOR]
KAKEMBO, R.H. An African Soldier Speaks London: London Missionary Society/ Livingstone Press, 1946
PAGE, Melvin E. KAR: A History of the King's African Rifles London: Leo Cooper, 1998
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AGAR-HAMILTON, John Augustus Ion. Crisis in the Desert May-July 1942 Cape Town: Oxford University Press (Union of South Africa Official War Histories), 1952
AGAR-HAMILTON, John Augustus Ion. The Sidi Rezeg Battles, 1941 Cape Town: Oxford University Press (Union of South Africa Official War Histories), 1957
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BROOKS, Thomas. The War North of Rome, June 1944-May 1945 New York: Sarpedon, 1996.
CARVER (Lord). The Imperial War Museum Book of the War in Italy: A Vital Contribution to Victory in Europe London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 2001 & Basingstoke: Pan Macmillan, 2002.
CLARK, Mark W. (General) Calculated Risk: His Personal Story of the War in North Africa and Italy New York: Harper & Row, 1950
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JACKSON, William & T.P. GLEAVE. Victory in the Mediterranean, Part 2: November 1944 to May 1945 London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1988.
KROS, Jack. War in Italy Rivonia, Johannesburg: Ashanti Publishing, 1992
NEILLANDS, Robin. Eighth Army: From the Western Desert to the Alps, 1939-1945 London: John Murray/ Hodder Headline, 2004
NOTIN, Jean-Christophe. La Campagne d’Italie Librarie Academique Perroin, 2002.
ORPEN, N. Victory in the Desert Cape Town: Purnell (South African Forces in World War Two, vol.3), 1971
ORPEN, N. Victory in Italy Cape Town: Purnell, 1975
PARKER, Matthew. Monte Cassino: The Story of the Hardest Fought Battle of World War Two London: Headline Book Publishing/ Hodder Headline, 2003.
PLAYFAIR, I.S.O., C.J.C. MALONEY, & W. JACKSON. The Mediterranean and Middle East London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office (United Kingdom Military Series), 6 vols, 1954-88
ROSIGNOLI, Guido. The Allied Forces in Italy, 1943-45 Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1989.
KROS, Jack. With the South Africans from Taranto to the Alps Rivonia , Johannesburg: Ashanti Publishing, 1992
SMURTHWAITE, David. D-Day Dodgers: The British Army in Italy, 1943-1945 London: National Army Museum, 1995
ELLIOTT, E.R. Royal Pioneers, 1945-1993 Hanley Swan, Worcestershire, England: SPA Publishers, 1993
FORSYTH, G. 'The cannibal cannoneers' Journal of the Royal Artillery, vol.72, no.3, 1945, pp. [re. artillery salvage work acc. Jackson 2002, p.747 ]
KILLINGRAY, David. 'If I fight for them, then maybe I can go back to the village: African soldiers in the Mediterranean and European campaigns, 1939-45', chap., pp. in Paul Addison & Angus Calder, eds. Time to Kill: The Soldier's Experience of War in the West, 1939-45 London: Pimlico, 1997
ORPEN, N. & H.J. MARTIN Salute the Sappers [South Africa?] Sappers Association, 1981
PRYNNE, H.G.L. 'Selected confessions of a pioneer' The Royal Pioneer, vol., no., 1949, pp.
RHODES-WOOD, E.H. The War History of the Royal Pioneer Corps 1939-1945 Aldershot: Gale & Polden, 1960.
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WEBB, F. ‘Tsukutlani’ Journal of the Royal Artillery , vol.75, no.3, 1948, pp.232-45 [cited in Jackson 1999 p.271, re. salvage units acc. Jackson 2002 p.747]
Copyright © 2007 N. Parsons. Last updated 16 Sept. 2007. [PAGE ENDS]