University of Botswana History Department

Botswana History: Bibliography for Local Studies

By Neil Parsons

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Draft Guide To Materials For Local History & Social Studies In Botswana

April 1999 Internet reprint of April 1987 Edition, compiled & edited by Neil Parsons, with the assistance of David Kiyaga-Mulindwa & Fred Morton

Note: "Sites of interest", in the context of this guide to local history, means actual places, not web-sites!


Maps excluded from this reprint, based on Government of Botswana Guide to the Villages of Botswana (Central Office of Statistics, Census Data) 1st edn. 1973.

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Introduction to 1987 Edition

This is a revised edition of a guide to Materials for Local History produced by three historians for the 1982 History Teachers Workshop held at Kgale. You will see that this Draft Guide itself needs much revision, but it should serve as a useful basis for further development.

The Draft Guide is divided into Bibliographies and Sites of Interest for each District of the country. You will need to look at the Bibliography of neighbouring districts as well as that of your own.

The major source of the Bibliographies is the annual journal Botswana Notes and Records, published by The Botswana Society (P.O. Box 71, Gaborone. tel 351500). There are complete sets of the journal in older secondary schools. The major source for the Sites of Interest is unpublished material in the National Museum, especially my Preliminary List of Historic and Archaeological Sites (1970) and earlier lists by J.F. Leech (1960s) and V.F. Ellenberger (1938).

What are the deficiencies of this Draft Guide? For a start, the Bibliography on every District except one does not include the contents of all volumes up to date of Botswana Notes and Records. I have only done this for Ghanzi District and Kgalagadi District up to the latest available volume (Vol. 18 for 1986). Central District and North East District are complete only to Volume 11 for 1979. Other Districts have still to be checked from Volume I1 (1969) onwards. [See the listing umder History etc. in Q.N. Parsons & R. Hitchcock Index to Botswana Society Publications, 1969-89 Gaborone: Botswana Society, 1991.].Ã For more background on local history there are older books in libraries with "tribal" histories of the Batswana. Ditirafalo tsa Batswana, edited by Isaac Schapera (Lovedale, 1940) and Dico tsa Secwana, edited by A.J. Wookey (Tiger Kloof, 1915) were reprinted many times. Anthony Sillery's Bechuanaland Protectorate (O.U.P., 1952) has "tribal" history chapters in English based on Dico and Ditirafalo. Isaac Schapera's Ethnic Composition of Tswana Tribes (London, 1952) is packed full of information on every Tswana ward of the 1940s. Schapera's History of the Bakgatla-bagaKgafela (1942) has been republished by Phutadikobo Museum (1980).

Two more recent useful books on local history are Thomas Tlou's History of Ngamiland 1750 to 1906 which is published by Macmillan Botswana (1985) and Bessie Head's Serowe: Village of the Rain Wind (Heinemann, 1981) - a model of how old people can be interviewed to to reveal aspects of local history. Also consult Thomas Tlou's 'The History of Botswana through Oral Traditions' in Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 3 (1971), pp. 79-90.

On Sites of Interest, Alec Campbell's Guide to Botswana (Winchester Press, 1979) is a good start. Also try to get hold of Reports of the Place Names Commission (3rd Report, 1983) produced by the Department of Surveys and Lands, and the Guide to the Villages of Botswana (1st edition 1973 being more useful than 2nd edition 1982) produced by the Central Statistics office. Both are packed full of local detail in every part of the country.

There are presently two published guides to local sites of interest - Alec Campbell's guide to the Gaborone area published by the National Museum, and Catrien van Waarden's guide to the Francistown area published by the Francistown Museum (1986). Neil Parsons Gaborone, April 1987Ã

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Central District has the largest literature, and the most known sites of historic and natural interest, since it is the most populous District. The Bibliography that follows needs updating with periodical articles (especially Botswana Notes and Records) and books published since 1979. The Sites of Interest list is somewhat rambling, and needs updating.

Central District west of the railway line has been the subject of intensive archaeology by Jim Denbow, which is reported in this 'A new look at the later prehistory of the Kalahari' in Journal of African History, Vol. 27, No. 1 (1986), pp. 3-28. Oral history around the Tswapong Hills has been collected by David Kiyaga-Mulindwa in Tswapong Historical Texts available in the University Library - Vol. 1 Origins of the Batswapong, Vol. 2 Politics and Society in Letswapo, and Vol. 3 Crafts of the Batswapong. Mulindwa is presently Senior Lecturer in Prehistory in the Department of History, University of Botswana.

The University Library also holds copies of the 1985 Symposium on Bangwato History, while the Khama III Memorial Museum at Serowe is developing its own Archives/Library.

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Pre-colonial  |  Colonial  |  Post-colonial


1. Botswana Notes and Records:

a. "An Acheulian Locality at Serowe" (by Ebert, Ebert & Hitchcock), Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 29-37.

b. "Stone Age Artefacts from Orapa" (by G. Cohen), Vol. 6, 1974, pp. 1-4.

c. "On the Origins of the bamaNgwato" (by Q.N. Parsons), Vol. 5, 1973, pp. 82-103.

d. "Khama's Own Account of Himself," Vol. 4, 1972, pp. 137-.

e. "The Early History of the Khurutse" (by I. Schapera), Vol. 2, 1969, pp. 1-13.

f. "Archaeological Investigation of Leeukop" (by C. van Waarden), Vol. 11, 1979, pp. 1-13.

g. "A Preliminary Account of Archaeological Investigation at Tautswe" (by L. Lepionka), Vol. 3, 1971, pp. 22-26. h. "Excavations at Toutsemogala" (by L. Lepionka), Vol. 9, 1977, pp. 1-16.

i. "An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Bobonong Area," (by J. Pletemeyer), Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 1-6.

j. "Notes on the Babirwa" (by E.O.J. Westphal), Vol. 7, 1975, pp. 191-.

k. "Social and Economic Networks: a Comparison of the Nata and Botletle River Areas" (by E. Cashdan), Vol. 9, 1977, pp. 166-.

l. "Notes on the Khuritshe" (by Chief Ramokate), Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 14-.

m. "A Short History of the Bakhurutse of King Motebele" (by J. Mpotokwane), Vol. 6, 1974, pp. 37-.

n. "From Gazungula (Kazungula) to Schoschong (Shoshong)" (by E. Holub), Vol. 7, 1975, pp. 35-.

2. Sillery, A. The Bechuanaland Protectorate (Cape Town: O.U.P. 1952) pp. 115-131 on the Ngwato 1700-1945 & pp. 178-85 on Kaa.

3. Palmer, R. & N. Parsons The Roots of Rural Poverty (London: Heinemann, 1977) pp. 113-43 on Ngwato economic history 1844-1930.

4. Tlou, T. Melao yagaKhama (Wisconsin University: MA, 1968) (Archives).

5. Setlhare, F.T. Khurutse, Ndebele, Kalanga and Ngwato (UCB: BA, 1978).

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1. Botswana Notes and Records:

a. "Journey in Search of History" (Boer War 1899) (by A.S. Hickman), Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 106-108.

b. "The Tree with Legs" (Boteti) (by G. Guy), Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 109-110.

c. "The Image of Khama the Great 1868-1970" (by Parsons), Vol. 3, 1971, pp. 41-.

d. "Mine Labour Recruitment" (by J. Taylor), Vol. 10, 1978, pp. 99-112.

e. "Khama III: Great Reformer and Innovator" (by T. Tlou), Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 98-.

f. "Moeng College: A Product of Self-Help" (by B.C. Thema), Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 71-.

g. "Tshekedi Khama as I Knew Him" (by M. Benson), vol. 8, 1976, pp. 121-.

2. Benson, M. Tshekedi Khama (London: Faber, 1960).

3. Chirenje, J.M. Chief Kgama and His Times (London: Collings, 1977).

4. Chirenje, J.M. A History of Northern Botswana 1850-1910 (Cranston, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1975).

5. Cohen, D. & J. Parson Politics in Botswana (Gaborone: UCB, 1976), pp. - ("Shots for a Black Republic: Simon Ratshosa and Botswana Nationalism," by Q.N. Parsons).

6. Parsons, Q.N. The Word of Khama (Lusaka: Neczam, 1972).

7. Parsons, Q.N. Khama III, the Bamangwato and British 1895-1923 (Edinburgh University: Ph.D., 1973) (Archives & UB).

8. Bobeng, M. The Bangwato-Bobirwa Conflict (UBLS: BA, 1976).

9. Letsididi, K.K.B. Some Aspects of the Career of Tshekedi Khama (UBLS: BA, 1976).

10. Mzwinila, M.M.F.K. The Bakhurutse of Tonota (UBLS: BA, 1976). 11. Mongwa, M.D.K. Political Struggle between Baka-Nswazwi and the Bangwato 1926-32 (UCB: BA, 1977).

12. Mannathoko, C.E. Kalanga Politics in the Context of Nationalism (UCB: BA, 1978).

13. Sebolai, M.K. Condition of the Masarwa in the Bamangwato Reserve (c1700-1940) (UCB: BA, 1978).

14. Masendu, K. Religion and Politics in Mapoka 1900-1975 (UCB: BA, 1979).

15. Fortes, M. & E. Pritchard African Political Systems (London: OUP, 1942), pp. - Ngwato by I. Schapera.

16. Gabatshwane, S.M. Tshekedi Khama (Cape Town: OUP, 1958).

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1. Botswana Notes and Records:

a. "Social Conditions in the Shoshong Area" (by L. Syson), Vol. 4, 1972, pp. 45-65.

b. "Some Sociological and Physiological Factors Affecting the Growth of Serowe" (by R. Gardner), Vol. 6, 1974, pp. 77-88.

c. "A New Approach to Rural Development" (by P. van Rensburg), Vol. 3, 1971, pp. 201-.

d. "Planning of Water, Power, Transportation and Township Facilities for the Shashe Project" (by R.J. White), Vol. 4, 1972, pp. 241-.

e. "Boiteko" (by P. van Rensburg), Vol. 5, 1973, pp. 12-.

f. "Socio-Economic Research of the Selebi-Phikwe Community Neighbourhood" (by D. Cooper), Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 303-.

2. Gabatshwane, S.M. Seretse Khama of Botswana (Cape Town: OUP, 1968?).

3. Head, B. Serowe: Village of the Rain Wind (London: Heinemann, 1981).

4. van Rensburg, P. Report from Swaneng Hill (Stockholm: Hammarskjoeld Foundation, 1972).

5. van Rensburg, P. The Serowe Brigades (London: Macmillan, 1978).

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Sites of Interest

Serowe - Historic sites include a later Stone Age site at Thataganyana Rock; Iron Age remains on Serowe Hill (Toutswe culture) and Swaneng (Male) Hill; former Ngwato settlements at Thataganyana (Mathiba's kgotla), and on the plain near the hospital; also at Thataganyana, Khama's 1873 refuge camp and 1902 LMS mission house; modern Serowe pegged out around kgotla, 26 Feb. 1902; Bamangwato Tribal Church (run by LMS) built 1911-15; Serowe Public School, later Khama Memorial School, founded c.1902, renamed 1922, near kgotla; Khama family graveyard from 1923 on hill; Serowe dam early 1930s; kgotla as scene of debates late 1940s-early 1950s; Swaneng Hill School from 1962-3; tarred roads cutting up town 1972-3?

Nata State Lands - Baines Baobabs at Khutse Pan (15km east of Tshuma) with 1871-75 carved names.

Bokalanga - Rock paintings on Kgangawe Hill and on hill near Magapatona on Nkake River; Mengwe's old village on the Tati-Pandamatenga Road now Bot-Zim border (former grain trade centre); Toro Nju stone walling Iron Age site 8 km from Selolwane; other Iron Age ruins at Nshakazhokwe (tall rock on hill on road to Mogapinyane), at Makwape Hills near Mogapinyane (near Mogapatona?) in Zwanpela Hills 10 km from Changate; Makoote (i.e., Lerubise/Owl) Hill ruins on Shashe River south of the Kalakamati-Nswazwi drift.

(Are rock paintings 'one mile' south of 'Takanye' also in Bokalaka?) Mmatsitama - Numerous Iron Age copper mine workings; small stone walled ruin at Lekobeng.

Malokobje - Iron Age and more recent copper mining (Bushman Mine, c1902, 20).

Boteti & Makgadikgadi - Moremaoto and Makalamabedi letter-trees for informal 19th century wagoners' postal services; Mosu sand-ridge birthplace of Khama III c1835; late Stone herder remains along Botletle River; Iron Age stone walled village site between Soa and Ntwetwe Plan; remains of abandoned Boer 'Thirstland Trekker' wagons ex 1870s in Lake Xau area?

Near Shashe River Station - Iron Age remains at Mmalekake 15-20km to the west.

Near Serule Station - Iron Age walling at Majojo (main road cutting in small hill 6km south of rail crossing; Toutswe Hill (Toupye Mogala) hilltop village site 10km southwest of Topisi Siding - site of Iron Age ruins and later Kalanga traditions.

Near Serowe - Galeshupye Hill Iron Age ruins; Paje Early Iron Age site and later Iron Age settlement of Ngwato (and Ndebele raiders); Mabele-a-podi, former Ngwato capital to which Khama I fled from Shoshong Hills; Moshu-o-sepeng, site of Ngwato village near Sekgoma I (15km east of Serowe).

Khutswe Hills/Mokgware Hills - Ngwato refuge from Sebetwane's Kololo; Sebobo-senaga 'bottomless' pit near Tewani.

Shoshong Hills - Iron Age mining and stone walls in hills; site of Kaa village on natural fortress of Bakaa Hills (southern line of hills nearer railway), including cave in which Kaa hid from Ndebele raiders; Ngwato settlement sites - under Mathiba at Marutlwe, Ngwaritse or Pepenyane, Shoshong and Motsedule (=Boangwe or Moshotlong); and under Khama I at Kulwe (Shoshong gorge), Serokolwane, Meoyaneng (from whence he fled from Kaa to north of Serowe). Mathiba's grave (after suicide) either at Motsedule or on the Tlhabala road leading out of Shoshong. Ngwato re-settlement under Sekgoma I at Mokateng (Mokota Hill above Shoshong gorge) in 1840s, moving down to Shoshong River site in 1850 (after 1849 expulsion of Kaa from area); 1850-1899 capital site of Shoshong includes LMS mission/school house ruin, graves, etc. Shoshong finally resettled after 1902.

Mahalapye - Iron Age site and Boer War fort on Station Hill; railway engine sheds (for S.A.R./R.R. locomotive changeovers); Serurume fossil valley 40km south; Iron Age ruins in Mookane Hills near Dibeete; ancient walls of Lephepe on Kweneng border.

Tuli Block - Iron Age stone walls on Marakalalo Hill near Machaneng; Ngwapa (Seleka) Hill, site of Seleka settlement until 1887 expulsion by Ngwato, and of Boer War battle; also Ngwapa Hill baobab tree with European travellers' names; Fort Elebe, 1890s police camp; 'Diskans' Iron Age walling on Lovelswood Farm (maybe now renamed) at Lotsane-Limpopo confluence; Suke (Seoka?) Iron Age ruin; Iron Age walling on Charter Reserve Farm & on Tshoga Hill; Baines Drift site of 1888 Grobler Enquiry; Batho West Hill (near Motloutse-Limpopo confluence) Iron Age and 19th century 'refuge' sites; Pont Drift and Bryce's Store, Boer War battle sites on Glennel Farm near Tuli Circle.

Tswapong Hills - Palapye Road railway station & hotel c1898; airfield laid out 1919 (first plane 1920 - on Cape to Cairo air route); 19th century wagon route, letter-box tree 400m south of station; ruins of Old Palapye (Phalatswe) 1889-1902 town, including church and magistracy on hillside near Photo-photo kloof and waterfall, and remains of town between there and Phalatswe Hill (= Name Kop with stone ruins?); Batswapong chief's burial cairn at Mopepe-wa-Sengongope; Khama's fruit garden, palm tree at Moeng spring, numerous iron mining sites in hills, smelting site above Moeng College.

Motloutse/Mmadinare - Iron Age walling north of Mmadinare on the Tonota road, at Lotlhakane-Motloutse confluence near Mmadinare, three sites at Manjande on Motloutse River near Tobane, and another near Tobane; later Stone Age and Iron Age shrine at Subyane Rock on Tobane Hill; Fort Motloutse (Matlaputla) site of Iron Age ruins and of 1890 main camp of 'Rhodesian Pioneers' (earth-walled forts, shops and Catholic sisters' hospital) at the Matlaputla-Sapetenge confluence on the Bobonong Sefhope road; Iron Age walling on Phakwe tributary of Thune River; site of 1888 Grobler Incident battle between Metsematsokwane and Phakwe Rivers on old Baines Drift-Tati road; Iron Age copper mining in vicinity of Selebi River and Phikwe Hill.

Lower Shashe Valley - Shashe Station handicrafts since c1918; Iron Age ruins, copper mine (Crocodile Pool), and 19th century travellers grave (Francis Oates d.1874) at Sandy Shashe Drift near Kgari Macheng on old Tati-Mmadinare road; Iron Age walling in Lipokolo Hills (Baobab Kop and one other), and in Mzilikgomo Hills near Semolale (4).

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Much of the literature on Chobe District is contained in works on Namibia (Caprivi Strip), Zambia and Zimbabwe as well as on Ngamiland District. You will find useful material in books on both Barotseland (Zambia) and the Victoria Falls (Zambia/Zimbabwe) - see Mutumba Mainga's Bulozi Under the Luyana Kings (London: Longman, 1973) or D.W. Phillipson's Mosi-oa-Tunya: a Handbook to the Victoria Falls Region (London & Salisbury, S.R., Longman 1975). If you are ever in Lusaka pick up a copy of Richard Sampson's, The Man with a Toothbrush in His Hat (Multimedia Publication, P.O. Box 8199, Lusaka), the story of George Westbeech, the founder of Pandamatenga - published in 1972 but still in print. You will also find David Livingstone's Missionary Travels (1857) in a few libraries, which tells you about Sebetwane and the Makololo at Linyanti.

The Bibliography which follows needs to be drastically updated and revised.

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1. Ellam, W.H. "The Basubiya Tribe" in Botswana National Archives, S349/1 (BNA).

2. Ellam, W.H. "The Basubiya of Chobe District" S36/1, S349/1-2 and S32/2 (BNA).

3. Ramsden, Frank. "The Basubiya" BA Dissertation in History, UBS, 1976.

4. Schulz, A. and A. Hammer, The New Africa, a Journey up the Chobe and Down the Okavango Rivers, (1897).

5. Shamukuni, Daniel, M. "The Basubiya," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 4, 1972.

6. Venning, J.H. "The Masubia and their History," in Botswana National Archives, S26/5.

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Sites of Interest

Linyanti - Kololo capital on Chobe 1840s - 60s (Old Linyanti on south bank and New Linyanti on the north bank).

Pandamatenga - Jesuit Mission and Westbeech's store in 1870s - 80s. Leshomo - Massacre of BDF troops by Rhodesian invaders, 1977.

Hendrik's Pan - Baobab tree with 19th century travellers' initials, now a National Monument (other baobabs with travellers' names can also be found).

Kavimba - Grave of Rev. Cullen Young of L.M.S. (died 1921).

Goha Hills - Caves where famous wooden buffalo (now in National Museum) found.

Kazungula - Remain of original mzungula ("German sausage") tree at ferry, after which Ka-zungula was named. Ferry has carried wagons (two wheels each in two canoes) since 1870s; common boundary with Zambia disputed by South Africa 1970.

Kasane - (a) Baobab cell in prison; (b) Hot springs near Chobe Brigades.

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Most of the literature on the Ghanzi District is concerned with "Bushmen" or "San" people. The most comprehensive introduction to the District, both historical and contemporary, is Afrikaners of the Kalahari: White Minority in a Black State by Margo Russell and Martin Russell (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1979). It has its own excellent bibliography. The Bibliography that follows here is of articles in Botswana Notes and Records. [I apologise for the lack of of Sites of Interest: they were omitted by mistake in the available copy of the 1987 Draft Guide.]

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Botswana Notes and Records:

1. Campbell, A.C. "Gcwi Bushmen: some notes on hunting with poisoned arrows," Vol. 1, 1969, pp. 95 -.

2. Traill, A. "Linguistic Research Among the !Xo Bushmen," Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 127-.

3. Guenther, M. "The Effect of Christianity on Bushmen," Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 125-.

4. Litherland, M., A.R. Litherland & M. Sekwale, "Rock Engravings from Mamuno," Vol. 7, (1975), pp. 19-.

5. Guenther, M. "The Trance Dancer as an Agent of Social Change Among the Fram Bushmen of the Ghanzi District," Vol. 7, 1975, pp. 161-.

6. Guenther, M. "San Acculturation and Incorporation in the Ranching Areas of the Ghanzi District: some urgent anthropological issues," Vol. 7, 1975, pp. 167-.

7. Mohr, N. "Perception and Culture: testing some tests in Bere," Vol. 7, 1975, pp. 195-.

8. Brown, R.C., "Climate and Climatic Trends in the Ghanzi District," Vol. 6, 1974, pp. 133-.

9. Yellen, J.E. "The Process of Basarwa Assimilation in Botswana," Vol. 17, 1985, pp. 15-23.

10. Vossen, R. "Studying the Linguistic and Ethno-history of the Khwe-speaking (central Khoisan) Peoples of Botswana," Vol. 16, 1984, pp. 19-35.

11. Brearly, J. "A Musical Tour of Botswana," Vol. 16, 1984, pp. 45-57.

12. Gillett, S. "Notes on the Settlement of the Ghanzi District," Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 1-14.

13. Truschel, L.W. "The Tawana and the Ngamiland [Ghanzi] Trek," Vol. 6, 1974, pp. 223-.

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[No sites listed as yet]

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The Kgalagadi District is the most understudied District in Botswana. Much of the literature on the Kalahari Thirstland and Bakgalagadi (or Bakhalagari) people overlaps into Ghanzi, Kweneng and Southern Districts - as well as onto the Northern Cape and Namibia. The Bibliography and Sites of Interest which follow need thorough revision, expansion and updating.

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1. Kuper, A. An African Democracy: Kalahari Village Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1970).

2. Clement, A.J. The Kalahari and its Lost City (Cape Town: Longman, 1967).

3. Breutz, P.L. The Tribes of Kuruman (Pretoria: Government Printer, 1956?).

4. Kuper, A. "The Kgalagadi Lekgotla" in Audrey Richards and Adam Kuper (editors), Councils in Action (Cambridge University Press, 1971).

5. Kuper, A. "Aspects of Administration in Western Botswana," African Studies, 29, 169-182.

6. Barker, J.F. "Towards a Biogeography of the Kalahari," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 15, 1983, pp. 85-98.

7. Lee, R. & I. de Vore. Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers: Studies of the Kung San and their Neighbours.

8. Raffle, J.A. "Mapping the Kalahari Desert," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 16, 1984, pp. 107-116.

9. Hermans, J. "Official Policy Towards the Bushmen of Botswana," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 9.

10. Shattuck, G.C. A Journey from Mahalapye through Kalahari.

11. Okihiro, G.Y. "Hunters, Herders, Cultivators and Traders: Interaction and Change in the Kgalagadi 19th Century," (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).

12. Jones, C.R. "The Geology of the Kalahari," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 45-.

13. Schapera, I. & D.F. van de Merwe, Notes on the Tribal Groupings, History and Customs of the Bakgalagadi, 1945.

14. Lancaster, I.N. "The Origins and Development of Pans in the Southern Kalahari," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 6, 1974, pp. 223-.

15. Mautle, G. "Bakgalagadi-Bakwena Relationship: a case of slavery, c1840-1930, Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 18, 1986, pp. 19-31.

16. Hitchcock, R.K. "Sandveld Agriculture in Botswana," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 18, 1986, pp. 91-105.

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Sites of Interest

Molopo Farms - ancient mine shafts (copper?)

Lehututu - 19th century trade and gun/cattle smuggling centre from Northern Cape to Namibia. Visited by showman Farini from New York in 1885 to recruit "Bushmen" for his shows.

Khuis - Fictitious diamond pipe "discovered" in 1930s.

Tshane - ditto gold "discovery"

"Lost City of the Kalahari" - "discovered" by Farini 1885 as fund-raiser and publicity stunt for his "Bushmen" shows in London and New York. He undoubtedly saw abandoned stone walled kraals in Kgalagadi, but chose to invent a city on same latitude as Lehututu.

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The following Bibliography was drawn up by Fred Morton in 1982. The Kgatleng District was the main study area of the world-famous anthropologist Isaac Schapera, who first went to Mochudi in 1929 and still sometimes returns. He has written over a hundred articles and books on Botswana, and maybe half of them are basically about the Bakgatla. See the bibliographies in his The Tswana (London: International African Institute, latest edition revised by John Comaroff) and his Tribal Innovators (London: Athlone Press, 1970). The Phutadikobo Museum in Mochudi houses a collection of local interest unrivaled in Botswana.

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1. Breutz, P.L. The Tribes of Rustenburg and Pilanesberg Districts, Department of Native Affairs, Ethnological Publications No. 28, (Pretoria: Government Printers, 1953).

2. Grant, S. "Church and Chief in the Colonial Era," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 3, 1971, 59-63.

3. Grant, S. "A Very Remarkable School," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 8, 1976, 87ff.

4. Morton, R.F. "Chiefs and Ethnic Unity in Two Colonial Worlds: the Bakgatla ba Kgafela of the Bechuanaland Protectorate and South Africa, 1872-1966" (University College of Botswana, Department of History Seminar, 1982).

5. Moyo, C.P. "Linchwe I (1875-1924): Firebrand and Reformer" (University College of Botswana, Department of History Seminar, 1982).

6. Peters, P. "The Privatisation of Communal Property: the Example of Borehole Syndicates in the Kgatleng District" (University College of Botswana, Department of History Seminar, 1980).

7. Schapera, I. "Bakgatla ba-Kgafela," in Schapera (ed.) Ditirafalo tsa Merafe ya Batswana (Alice: Lovedale Press, 1954, 153-188).

8. Schapera, I. "Notes on the History of the Kaa," African Studies, 4, 3(Sept. 1945), 109-121.

9. Schapera, I. A Short History of the Bakgatla-bagaKgafela of Bechuanaland Protectorate, Communications from the School of African Studies. New Series No. 3. Cape Town, University of Cape Town, 1942. (reprinted 1980, published by Phutadikobo Museum).

10. Sillery, A. The Bechuanaland Protectorate (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1952. Chapter on Bakgatla).

11. Spears, J.V. "An Epidemic Among the Kgatla: The Influenza of 1918," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 11, 1979, pp. 69-76.

12. Truschel, L.W. "Nation-Building and the Kgatla: The Role of the Anglo-Boer War," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 4, 1972, pp. 185-193.

13. Kgatleng History Project (UBS), 1980.

a. Chiganze, F. The Political Economy of the Kgatleng, 1871-1920.

b. Kenosi, B. The Economic History of the Kgatleng, 1871-1930.

c. Madisa, M.M. Regiments as a Tributary Mode of Production.

d. Mafu, D. Origins and Growth of Oodi Village.

e. Manyeula, A. Place and Changing Role of the Kgotla and Chieftainship.

f. Mchaeli, C.N. The Ntshole of Morwa, 1895-1966.

g. Molutsi, P.P. Historical Roots of Agrarian Underdevelopment in Kgatleng, 1930-1970.

h. Moswela, M.F. Politics in Kgatleng: Parochialism vs. Nationalism.

i. Moyo, M. Development of Capitalist Trade and the Impact of Traders in Kgatleng.

j. Monnatsie, P.M. The Growth and the Spread of Religious Sects in Kgatleng: the Case of the Zion Christian Church.

k. Richard, Phanuel. Basarwa Subordination among the Bakgatla: the Case of the Kgakole Family in Northwest Kgatleng.

l. Ramogwera, J.P.E. The Role and Survival of Traditional Medical Practice in Kgatleng.

m. Nkosana, B.W. Bakgatla-Bakalanga Relations: Politics of the Integration of a Minority.

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Sites of Interest

Sebilong - An open-cast mining site (iron) between Olifant's Drift and Marsailles on Marico (Madikwe) River.

Deerdepoort (Sikwane) - Battle ground between Bakgatla and the Boers in 1900.

Matsieng - Site north of Rasesa with rock engravings, visited by Livingstone. San folklore and myth connected with this site.

Mochudi - a) Graves of Lentswe I, Molefi, Isang and his wife, and of Kgamanyane; b) The Bakgatla National School - now Phutadikobo Museum; c) DRM Mission & Hospital; d) Site of tree (felled in 1968) at which Sebele of Bakwena was captured by Bakgatla, 18.

Malotwana - former rail station for Mochudi on the Mochudi-Shoshong wagon road; 1899-1900 graves of British soldiers (including a German-American) who died of fever in South African War.

Odi - Odi Weavers is internationally famous for its tapestries.

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The historical literature on the Kweneng in the 19th century dates from the residence of the famous Dr. Livingstone with Kgosi Sechele I up to 1852. What follows is a comprehensive Bibliography and Sites of Interest drawn up by David Kiyaga-Mulindwa and Fred Morton in 1982.²

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1. Duggan, W. "The Kweneng in the Colonial Era: a Brief Economic History," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 9, 1977, 41ff.

2. Knobel, L. "The History of Wechele," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 1, 1989, 51f.

3. Kooagile, T.A. "Relations Between the Bakwena and the Bangwato, c1830-1890" (University College of Botswana, B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1976).

4. Livingstone, D. Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (London: Murray, 1857.)

5. Merriweather, A.H. "Molepolole Mission History," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 1, 1969, 1ff.

6. Mhapha, G. "The Career of Chief Sebele I" (University College of Botswana, B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1977).

7. Nangati, F. "Constraints on a Pre-colonial Economy. The Bakwena State c1820-1885," Pula, 2, 1(1980), 125-138.

8. Nangati, F. "Rural Production and the Wagon Trade in Central and South-Eastern Botswana, 1886-1895" (University College of Botswana, Department of History Seminar, 1979).

9. Okihiro, G.Y. "Hunters, Herders, Cultivators and Traders: Interaction and Change in Kgalagadi, Nineteenth Century" (Ph.D. Thesis, Los Angeles, University of California, 1976).

10. Okihiro, G.Y. "Resistance and Accommodation: Bakwena-bagaSechele, 1842-52," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 5, 1973, p. 104 ff.

11. Schapera, I. "Bakwena" in Schapera (ed.) Ditirafalo tsa Merafe ya Batswana (Alice: Lovedale Press, 1954, 43-62).

12. Schapera, I. Notes on the Early History of the Kwena (Bakwena bagaSechele), Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 12, 1980, pp. 83-88.

13. Silitshena, R. "Notes on the Origins of Some Settlements in the Kweneng District," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 8, 1976, 97f.

14. Sillery, A. The Bechuanaland Protectorate (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1956. Chapter on Kwena).

15. Sillery, A. Sechele: the Story of an African Chief (Oxford: G. Ronald, 1964).

University College of Botswana, Department of History B.A. Dissertations 1977):

16. Tambula, S.B. "The Sebele-Kgari Dispute".

17. Chakalisa, P.P. Development and Impact of Western Education in Kweneng, 1846-1966.

18. Lecha, M.D. Impact of Capitalist Expansion of the Kweneng Peripheral Economy, 1830-1945.

19. Leepile, M. Impact of Migrant Labour on the Economy of Kweneng, 1940-1980.

20. Malambane, M. Role of the London Missionary Society in Kweneng.

21. Mautle, T. Bakgalagadi-Bakwena Relationship: A Case of Slavery, c1840-1930.

22. Molotsi, K.P.M. Impact of Colonialism on Institution of Chieftainship, 1885-1961.

23. Mokopakgosi, B. Social, Economic and Political Impact of the Second World War on the Bakwena, 1939-1950.

24. Selepeng, O.S. Totemism and Clans in the History of the Kweneng.

25. Senabye, D.B.N. Missionaries, Administrators and the Demise of the Regimental System, 1885-1945.

26. Tafa, M.M. The Rise of Conservative Bourgeois Nationalism: Politics in Kweneng, 1945-1974.

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Sites of Interest

Maphefo - This is an abandoned Kwena village site, situated 20-25 miles N-NE of Molepolole.

Maokagane Hills - Near "Kopong" caves. Among these hills are a) an iron smelting site; b) rock paintings and c) the Lowe cave at Kopong.

Ga Kala - in the Kopong hills. Old mining site about an hour's walk SE of Lentswe-le-tau, north of the Mochudi-Molepolole road. Lentswe-le-tau - An iron smelting site.

Kopong Hills - A cave; rock engravings in the hills and rock engravings some 18 miles north of Molepolole. Also Kopong water caves.

Molepolole - a) Execution Rock - Kobokwe; b) Sokwane, grave of Motswasele II situated NE of Molepolole; c) Footprints on the rock in Molepolole Hill; d) Burial cairns of Sechele I, Sebele I and Sebele II on kraal site of old Molepolole village site where Sebele I also stayed with favourite wife after village had moved to Borakalalo 1899/1900.

Borakalalo - a) Molepolole since 1899/1900; b) LMS Church in Borakalalo; c) Anglican Church built 1916.

Mokgophaneng - Sebele's cattle post and settlement of some Bakwena who left Molepolole Hill.

Logaga Lwa Ga Kabokwe - Livingstone and Sechele's Cave about 2 miles from Molepolole on Molepolole-Moshupa road. This cave is said to be the home of a spirit.

Dithubaruba - Kwena capital after Dimawe and Kolobeng; Livingstone arrived here in 1853.

Dithejwane - Situated 8 miles SSW of Molepolole on Kanye road. Has stone wall and hut foundation remains.

Kolobeng - a) Old Kwena capital until 1853. Dam on Kolobeng River for irrigation; b) Livingstone's house and workshop; c) Sechele's square house designed by Livingstone; d) Grave of Elizabeth Livingstone born and died there 1850.

Dimawe - Old Kwena capital after Kolobeng, settled in August 1851 and attacked by Boers in August 1852.

Letlhakane Valley - Rock engravings.

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The Bibliography and Sites of Interest which follow were compiled by Kiyaga-Mulindwa and Morton, and need revision and updating. For a start, the Bibliography needs to include the literature on the Tsodilo Hills and on the !Kung San of Dobe. There are also numerous articles in Botswana Notes and Records, especially the continuing series of articles on the Hambukushu by Tom Larson. This is also a District where an effort should be made to list and locate copies of relevant films and videotapes.

For Later Stone Age and Early Iron Age history of Ngamiland see Denbow's "A New Look at the Later Prehistory of the Kalahari," Journal of African History, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1986, pp. 3-28.

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1. Alnaes, K. Research Findings at the Completion of Social Anthropological Fieldwork. Among the Herero Speakers in Western Ngamiland-Botswana (Min. of Agriculture).

2. Moichubedi, B. "Ditirafalo tsa Morafe wa Batawana," MSS - Maun.

3. Biesele, Megan. "Second Interim Report Ngamiland Investigation."

4. Anderson, C.J. Lake Ngami or Explorations and Discovery During Four Years of Wanderings in the Wilds of South West Africa.

5. Nettelton, G.E. "Batawana" in Schapera (ed.) Ditirafalo tsa Merafe ya Batswana (Lovedale Press, 1954).

6. Nettelton, G.E. "History of the Ngamiland Tribes to 1826" Bantu Studies, 8(1934).

7. Tlou, T. "Local History Among the Batawana," Botswana Notes and Records, 1971.

8. Tlou, T. A Political History of Northwestern Botswana to 1906 (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin) published by Macmillan Botswana 1984.

9. Larson, T.J. "The Hambukushu of Ngamiland, Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 2, 1969.

10. Stigand, G.A. "Ngamiland" Geographical Journal, 62 (1923).

11. Cowley, C. Fabled Tribe, A Journal to Discover the River Bushmen of the Okavango Swamps (1969).

12. Schwarz, E.H.C. The Kalahari and its Native Races: Being an Account of a Journey through Ngamiland and the Kalahari (1928).

13. Andersson, C.J. The Okavango River, A Narrative of Travel Exploration and Adventure.

14. Gibson, G.D. "Double Descent and its Correlates among the Herero of Ngamiland," American Anthropologist, 58 (1956).

15. Larson, T.J. "The Ecological Adaptation of the Mbukushu, A Bantu Tribe of Ngamiland" (Ph.D. Dissertation, American University, Washington, DC, 1962).

16. Larson, T.J. "Epic Tales of the Mbukushu," African Studies, (22), 1963.

17. Larson, T.J. "The Political Structure of the Ngamiland Mbukushu under the Rule of the Tawana," Anthropos, 60 (1965).

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Sites of Interest

!Kangwa Valley, Western Ngamiland - rich source of Early, Middle and Later Stone Age remains.

Gi Pan - Near Namibian border: Middle and Later Stone Age settlements, excavated 1968-9.

Kwihabe Hill - Ngamiland: contains 'Drotsky's Cave' (Maun trader, who was shown cave by 'Bushmen' in 1934).

Kgwebe Hills - Site used by London Missionary Society (A.J. Wookey & J.E. Reid), and by Frederick Lugard's 1896 British West Charterland Company expedition.

Nakalatswee - Site of Sekgoma's village (Tawana), and site of renegotiation of concession with BWCC, 1896.

Samedupi - Early Stone Age remains collected by J.Wayland.

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The obvious places to start for updating and revising this Bibliography and Sites of Interest for North East District are Catrien van Waarden's Guide to the Francistown Area, published to raise money for the new local museum (1986) and her forthcoming History of the Bakalanga being published by the Botswana Society as its Occasional Paper No.2 (1987). The history of North East District is of course inseparable from those of Central District and the Republic of Zimbabwe.

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1. Botswana Notes and Records:

a. "The Native Land Problem in the Tati District" (by I. Schapera) Vol. 3, 1971, pp. 219-68.

b. "Land and Chiefship in the Tati Concession" (By R.P. Werbner) Vol. 2, 1970, pp. 6-.

c. "Migration and Adaption to Francistown" (by C. Kerven), Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 301-2.

2. Mosarwe, K.M. The History of the Baseleka (UBLS: BA, 1976).

3. Monyatsi, P.P. The History of the Ndebele of Siviya (UCB: BA, 1979).

4. Woto, A.P.S. The Tati District and the Scramble (UBLS: BA, 1976).

5. Tapela, H.M. The Tati District of Botswana 1868-1969 (Sussex University: D.Phil., 1976).

6. Sillery, A. The Bechuanaland Protectorate (Cape Town: OUP, 1952) pp. 85-88, Tati Concession.

7. Phillips, H.Y. The Bagaseleka Barolong's Search for a Homeland (UBLS: BA, 1976).

8. Maikano, B.M. Imperialism in North-Eastern Bechuanaland Protectorate (UCB: BA, 1977).

9. Sechele, G.K. Colonialism in North-Eastern Bechuanaland (1895-1945): the Bakhurutshe Case (UCB: BA, 1977).

10. Kwelagabe, C.M.T. The History of Francistown to the 1960s (UCB: BA, 1978).

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Sites of Interest

Francistown - Iron Age ruins on Xmas Kop and other small hills, including burials near Nyangabgwe Hill; gold workings at Monarch Mine since 1880s; 1950s airport buildings (HQ of Wenela labour recruitment from 'Central Africa,' then biggest passenger carrying airline in Africa); various older buildings in town.

Early capitalist gold mining (1869-70s-80s) at Old Tati - including New Zealand, Bluejacket, Charlie, Lady Mary, Durham and Monarch (Francistown) workings up the Tati River; and Cherished Kop, Tekwani, Penhalonga, Selkirk (also copper), Vermaak, Signal Hill, Rainbow, and Kremitat along road from Francistown to Matsiloje.

Iron Age walling sites (many partly destroyed by 1929 excavations under German antiquarian Leo Frobenius) associated with gold mining at Domboshaba near Kalakamati (Kalanga myth of trying to remove Monyalozhwe Rock for Mambo's throne), on nearby Luswingo Hill or Laga Boshu (Luswingo lagaBoshu?), on Sekakangwe Hill near Kalakamati (including Iron Age asbestos fibre mining for mixing with clay for fireproof pots); Vukwe ruins on hill close to Vukwe River opposite Farm 5; Farm 54 next to 5; Farm 64 next to 54 between Tati and Inchwe Rivers; Ramokgwebane ruins 5km from village; 5km south-east or south-west from Bosoli Siding; Farm 91 (Hertz's Farm); Selkirk copper mine and ruins; Selukwe Hill (Farm 345) ruin and terracing; Shweti River tributary of Shashe; Iron Age walling since rebuilt at Old Tati.

Stone Age sites on gullies on Ntoba River near Masunga; Rock paintings (probably Later Iron Age Khoisan hunter or Iron Age initiation camps) on Farms 51, 64, 69, 72, 74a, 76, 91, 401; Monyalozhwe Rock and Matenge rock pool at Domboshaba; near Kalakamati on 1957 car track; Ramoshangwane 3km from Domboshaba; south-east of Kalakamati-Nswazwi drift on Shashe River; Mabalane Hill near Sefhegwale (Old Selepeng); in Moroka; Spongolo River east of Farm 68; near Zwenshabe school; St. Michael's Farm; near Bosoli. ('a mile' south of Takanye store? Bokalaka?)

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The South East District is much more than Gaborone. It covers both the Batlokwa and Bamalete Reserves as well as the freehold Gaborone and Lobatse Blocks. As a frontier region its history and geography relate closely to the Western Transvaal as well as to Southern, Kweneng and Kgatleng Districts.

Gaborone has the National Museum (with its Archaeology Department in an old house next to the Gaborone Club in the Village). There are plans for the Tlokweng kgotla to be the basis for a local rather than national museum.

Gaborone, Lobatse and other towns are covered in a variety of scales by maps of the Department of Surveys and Lands.

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1. Allen, S.A. "Maps of Traditional Tribal Sub-Divisions among the Balete of Ramotswa" Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 12, 1980, pp. 119-136.

2. Breutz, P.L. The Tribes of Marico District (Department of Native Affairs. Ethnological Publications, No. 30. Pretoria Government Printers, 1953).

3. Ellenberger, V.F. "Ba-ga-Malete" and "Batlokwa" in Schapera (ed.) Ditirafalo tsa Merafe ya Batswana (Alice: Lovedale Press, 1954) pp. 189-218, 229-238.

4. Ellenberger, V.F. "History of the Ba-ga-Malete of Ramotswa (Bechuanaland Protectorate)," Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 5(1937), pp. 1-72.

5. Ellenberger, V.F. "History of the Ba Tlokwa of Gaberones (Bechuanaland Protectorate)," Bantu Studies, 3(1939), pp. 165-198.

6. Lestrade, G.P. "Some Notes on the Political Organisation of the BeChwana," South African Journal of Science, 25(1928), pp. 427-432.

7. Mbongwe, J. "The Colonial and Post-Independence Urban Development of Gaborone, 1887-1981" (University College of Botswana, B.A. Research Essay, Department of History, 1982).

8. Mgadla, P.R.T. "The History of the Town and Area of Lobatse from Pre-Colonial Times to 1965" (University College of Botswana, B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1978).

9. Mongatane, T.L. "Balete and the Scramble" (University College of Botswana, B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1976).

10. Mosothoane, Pitso. "The Batlokwa of Gaborone's Search for a Homeland" (B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1976).

11. Sillery, A. The Bechuanaland Protectorate (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1952) (Lete, 160-165; Tlokwa 166-169; Hurutse, 188-192).

12. Tlhomelang, L. "Bahurutse Bo-Manyana" (University College of Botswana, B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1977).

13. Tsumake, P. "Agrarian Underdevelopment in the South East District of Botswana since the 19th century" (University College of Botswana, B.A Research Essay, Department of History, 1982).

14. Will, Denzil & Tommy Dent. "The Boer War as Seen from Gaborone," Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 4, 1972.

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Sites of Interest

Gaborone - a) Original Fort Gaborone 1891, opposite Village clinic; b) 1900 graveyard in Village; c) morula tree between Orapa House and new U.S. Embassy where B.D.P was founded in 1962.

Crocodile Pools - Boer War battle sites 1899-1900. Basuto Kop between railway and new main road, named after Mosotho policeman killed by Boers who crossed border to blow up railway bridge in first few days of war. (His grave is next to railway a few hundred metres south of Naledi Brigades). Sepitse Hill just east of old main road bridge was Boer artillery site (manned by Germans). After defeat and retreat to Mahalapye, British returned early 1900s to recapture Crocodile Pools.

Transfeld Farm - Farm House built c1900. Colonial style near Crocodile Pools by German settler who made his fortune in the wood trade to Kimberley.

Ramotswa - Gopane Hill - Old iron-workings also iron-smelting sit on Dibopane Hill. There was ore mining near Ramotswa village. Smelting furnaces visible some 8 miles away from mining site, now destroyed by new main road across Taung River.

Manyelanong Hill - a) Ootse: Rock paintings and vultury; b) Lentswe-la-Baratani: scene of classic lovers' story in days of Kgalagadi and possibly Kwena/Hurutse villages in area; c) natural limestone caves.

Bon Accord Farm - On BSA Company farm. Rock paintings NE corner of farm.

Lobatse - a) Old iron-workings in Lobatse farms; b) iron-smelting site some 10km north of Lobatse and 6km west of road to Gaborone. Kgale - Kgale Catholic Mission building 1930s.

Seoke - Ngwaketse capital town of Kgosi Moleta (1780s), now in ruins on hillside next to Lobatse sewerage farm.

Phata-ya-Barwa - Gorge or kloof through which railway passes just south of Lobatse. Scene of famous 1780s battle between Bangwaketse and southern invaders ("Barwa") consisting of Batlhaping and Korana.

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Southern District includes the former Bangwaketse Reserve and Barolong Farms, as well as the Jwaneng municipality. The Bibliography that follows can be expanded by including, for example, coverage of agricultural questions on the Barolong Farms. The Sites of Interest can be expanded even within Kanye itself - the old L.M.S. church that served temporarily as the Kanye Museum in the 1960s, the architecturally splendid set of royal houses at the Kgosing, the standpipes at the top of the hill from a tank first installed under the rule of Seepapitso III (1910-16), Stone Age remains on the airfield, the Rural Industries Innovation Centre, etc.

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1. Breutz, P.L. The Tribes of the Mafeking District (Department of Native Affairs: Ethnological Publications No. 32. Pretoria, Government Printers, 1966).

2. Matthews, Z.K. "Barolong," in Schapera, Ditirafalo tsa Merafe ya Batswana (Alice: Lovedale Press, 1954, 1-32).

3. Matthews, Z.K. "A Short History of the Tshidi Barolong," Fort Hare Papers, 1(1945), 9-28.

4. Molefi, R.K.K. "The Regency of Chieftainness Ntebogang of the Ngwaketse, 1924-1928," (University College of Botswana, B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1978).

5. Molema, S.M. Bantu, Past and Present (Edinburgh: Green, 1920).

6. Molema, S.M. Chief Moroka: his Life, his Times and His People (Cape Town: Methodist Publishing House, 1951).

7. Molema, S.M. Montshiwa: Barolong Chief and Patriot, 1815-1896 (Cape Town, Struik, 1966).

8. Ngcongco, L.D. "Aspects of the History of the Bangwaketse to 1910," (Ph.D. Dissertation, Halifax: Dathousie, 1975).

9. Ngcongco, L.D. "The Career of Kgosi Gaseitsiwe of the Bangwaketse: a Reassessment" (International Conference on Southern African History, Roma, 1977).

10. Phillips, H.Y. "The bagaSeleka Barolong's Search for a Homeland," University College of Botswana (B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1976).

11. Plaatje, Sol. The Boer War Diary of Sol T. Plaatje.

12. Schapera, I. "Bangwaketse," in Schapera (ed.) Ditirafalo tsa Merafe ya Batswana (Alice: Lovedale Press, 1954).

13. Schapera, I. "Short History of the BaNgwaketse," African Studies, 1(1942), 1-26.

14. Selolwane, O. "Colonisation by Concession," Pula, 2, 1(Feb. 1980),75-124.

15. Sillery, A. The Bechuanaland Protectorate (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1952. Chapters on Ngwaketse, Rolong).

16. TseTausele, B.M. "Bakgatla ba-ga-Mmanana," (University College of Botswana, B.A. Dissertation, Department of History, 1978).

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Sites of Interest

Manyana - a) Rock paintings; b) Motlhasa tree, under which Moffat used to preach; c) Moffat's kraal; Moffat passed through here in 1854.

Makolontwane (Melita) - former Ngwaketse capital was a famous copper & iron mining area; products exported south to the Tlhaping area c1826.

Kanye - a) Graves of Col. Plumer's column 1900; b) Execution Rock - Pharing; c) Battle site on Nyorosi Hill - between the Bangwaketse and Ndebele; d) Old Kgwakgwe mine south of Kanye village.

Rra-Sentshadi's Cave near Phareng execution rock was shrine for Rra-Sentshadi (alias Thobega?) as mythical ancestor.

Kgokole Hill - Rock engraving on hill near Kanye.

Moreane (Mosiane) - Rock paintings of snake (9 miles from Kanye on Kanye/Lobatse road.

Pitsane Pan connected with the Jameson Raid.


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Copyright © 1999 Neil Parsons
Last updated 6 October 2000

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